Edom – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

In Rabbinic Literature

In Rabbinic Literature, with time Edom became associated with Rome. The reasons for this and whether it is an adequate comparison are disputed, or literal which is also disputed.[37] Edom was a slang word for Rome specifically its empire among diaspora Italian Jews, the correctness or historicity of this slang is dubious. The first oral connection diaspora Jews made between Edom and Rome is derived from the propaganda of the Bar Kochba revolt.[38] Rabbi Meir used Biblical quotes to spread this [39] In many instances Rome and Edom are used interchangeably, in Ashkenazic and Italian diaspora Jewish literature

via Edom – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

Also mentioned in Isaiah 34:5

5For my sword shall be bathed in heaven: behold, it shall come down upon Idumea(edom), and upon the people of my curse, to judgment.

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